An increase in serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D3 levels [25(OH)D3] may contribute to the pathogenesis of rosacea, and patients with high serum levels have a 1.36-fold increased risk of developing rosacea, according to a study published in Clinical and Experimental Dermatology.
Researchers in the current case-control study analyzed the role vitamin D plays in individual rosacea susceptibility by comparing the levels of 25(OH)D3 and 5 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) of vitamin D receptor genes (ApaI, BsmI, Cdx2, FokI, and TaqI) in 60 patients with rosacea and 60 sex- and age-matched healthy controls.
Participants with rosacea showed higher 25(OH)D3 levels than the healthy controls (12.9±6.8 ng/mL vs 10.5±3.7 ng/mL; P <.001), and participants with high 25(OH)D3 levels showed a 1.36-fold increase in rosacea risk (95% CI, 1.17-1.58). A 5.26-fold increased risk was seen in participants with heterozygous polymorphisms (95% CI, 1.51-18.35), and a 3.69-fold increased risk was seen in participants with ApaI polymorphisms (95% CI 1.19-11.48).
Conversely, a 4.69-fold decreased risk was seen in participants with mutant TaqI polymorphisms (95% CI, 1.37-16.67). Wildtype ApaI alleles and mutant TaqI alleles decreased rosacea risk, whereas heterozygosity in Cdx2 alleles increased it. No significant differences in BsmI, Cdx2, or FokI nucleotide polymorphisms were seen between participants and healthy controls.
Study investigators concluded that the findings indicate an association between risk of rosacea and vitamin D levels and vitamin D receptor gene SNPs, and although the possible role of these pathways in rosacea may not indicate direct causality, “it is possible that rosacea and elevated vitamin D levels are both induced by UV exposure, but by separate and unrelated mechanisms. Further prospective studies eliminating confounding factors and assessing more patients from different ethnic populations are required to determine whether VDR SNPs and vitamin D play a role in genetic susceptibility to rosacea.”
Akdogan N, Alli N, Incel Uysal P, Candar T. Role of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels and vitamin D receptor gene polymorphisms in patients with rosacea: a case-control study [published online September 23, 2018]. Clin Exp Dermatol. doi: 10.1111/ced.13769