A paromomycin-based topical cream offered an effective treatment for cutaneous leishmaniasis, according to a study published in PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases.
Researchers of this randomized, double-blind trial evaluated the efficacy and safety of a paromomycin topical cream and a paromomycin and gentamicin topical cream for clinically curing rates of cutaneous leishmaniasis lesions. Patients were randomly assigned to a cohort and used the assigned topical cream once a day for 20 days. Patients were evaluated at baseline, day 63, day 100, and day 168 for re-epithelialization, relapses, and adverse events.
Of the 399 patients included in this study, 63% were men, the mean age was 23 years old, 198 received paromomycin cream, and 201 received paromomycin and gentamicin cream. The cure rate was 78% (95% CI, 74-87) for the paromomycin cream and 79% (95% CI, 72-84) for the paromomycin and gentamicin cream. Children under the age of 12 had a cure rate of 84%, and teens between the ages of 12-17 had a cure rate of 82%. The most common adverse events reported were mild to moderate dermatitis, pruritus, erythema, pain, and burning sensation.
The researchers concluded that “topical therapy with a paromomycin-based cream offers a potential alternative to the current standard of care for the treatment of [cutaneous leishmaniasis].”
Sosa N, Pascale JM, Jiménez AI, et al. Topical paromomycin for new world cutaneous leishmaniasis. PLoS Negl Trop Dis. 2019;13(5):e0007253.